Recently, we observed the formation day of Telangana a state located in Southern India. Telangana is the 29th state of India formed on 2nd June 2014. The state has an area of 1 lakh square km and about 3 crore population. After decades of violent and peaceful struggles Telangana was created by passing the Andhra state reorganization bill. Telangana is surrounded by Maharashtra and Chhattisgarh in north, Karnataka in west, and Andhra Pradesh in South-east direction. It shares its capital Hyderabad with Andhra Pradesh. Let us look at how it was formed.
After independence in 1947, Hyderabad remained an independent state for a period of 13 months. Razakar militia unleased terror in the state by looting and murdering, peasants also revolted to liberate the region. On 17 September 1948, Indian government conducted a military operation called operation polo to bring Hyderabad State under Indian Union. M.K. Vellodi was appointed as the first Chief Minister of Hyderabad on 26 January 1950.
In 1950s, people of Telangana region in Hyderabad State started organizing themselves with a demand for separate state. In 1953 the Indian government appointed the States Reorganization Commission (SRC) to look into various demands regarding statehoods in India. This commission was headed by Fazal Ali, Kavalam Madhava Panikkar and H.N. Kunzru. People of Telangana region submitted various memorandum regarding separate statehood. They gave historic, cultural, social, economic and political justifications.
Between 1955-56 People of Telangana launched a series of protests to implement the SRC recommendations of statehood. But intense lobbying by leaders of Andhra Pradesh resulted in formation of Andhra Pradesh by merging Telangana region in Andhra State. Gentlemen’s agreement was signed by Telangana and Andhra leaders which stated no discrimination against Telangana people by Andhra leaders but this was violated by them from the day one itself.
Non compliance to the Gentlemen’s agreement and discrimination in Government jobs by Andhra leaders lead to 1969 protests. Students intensified the struggles. In January all party accord was signed to ensure proper implementation of Telangana safeguards. This stated that all non Telangana employees holding posts reserved for Telangana locals will be transferred immediately, Telangana surpluses should be used for its development only and students should call off the protests.
But the protests further intensified with at most 369 youngster lives lost. Prime minister Indira Gandhi called a meeting and developed eight point plan to safeguard Telangana’s movement. After that the Statehood movement continued until 1973 but later subsided.
Since mid of 1990s people of Telangana started organizing themselves to demand separate statehood. After several agitations finally in 2013, the UPA government announced that the process of formation of Telangana state should be initiated. It concluded the process in 2014 by passing a bill in both the houses of parliament. In general elections held in April 2014 Telangana Rashtra Samithi emerged victorious by winning 63 out of 119 seats and formed government headed by Sri K Chandrashekar Rao as First Chief Minister of Telangana. The state was inaugurated finally on 2nd June 2014.