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EDUindex News

INDIA BEFORE AND DURING BRITISH RULE

Before the British rule in India beginning from the late 1750s, India was not in a much good condition due to the lack of education and knowledge. Even though we had a prosperous and flourished economy, we didn’t know how to utilize it, this is why we had a majorly backward society for a long time. It was after the British rule that we understood the importance of education and started investing in it.

So, what exactly was India’s condition before and during the rule. How were we underusing our opportunities?

 

AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

There was a big sluggishness in the agricultural sector during the British empire. This was mainly because of the ‘zamindari system’. Under this system, all of the profits earned by the farmers for selling the harvested crops in market went directly to the zamindar of the land in the form of a ‘lagaan’. Here, the zamindars were only concerned about their lagaan and not the condition of the farmer. So even if he was not in a good financial position to pay the lagaan, their remaining money were forcefully being taken away from them. These lagaan was to be given to the colonial government by the zamindars and therefore, the government did nothing to improve this system.

Apart from this, the government also forced the commercialization of agriculture. This meant that the farmers were only supposed to grow those crops which were meant for the sale in the market and not the ones for their own consumption. For doing this, the farmers were even being paid but it didn’t really help since all of the crops were being taken away by the government.

Also, India was really underdeveloped when it came to technology. Therefore, there were hardly any irrigation facilities available or any fertilizers accessible. Due to this, there was extremely low productivity in the country and there were never enough crops being produced for the entire nation. Furthermore, the colonial government did absolutely nothing to improve the conditions of this sector, no initiatives, no investments, nothing.

 

INDUSTRIAL SECTOR

The industrial sector was quite reputed in the international market, before the British rule, for its handicrafts. We were known for our creativity in hand-made products. Although, during the rule, our handicraft industry declined since British were following two-fold policy to completely collapse the Indian market. They used to buy the raw materials from India at cheaper rates and export them their own country. However, when the finished goods were made, they imported back and sold to the Indians at higher prices.

As a result, there was high level of unemployment in the nation and also the market was rebuffing since the Indian goods could not compete with the imported machine-made goods.

Also, there was rarely any capital goods industry available during the rule in the country therefore, industrialization could not be promoted further. this resulted in the limited contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) which restricted the growth of the Indian economic. Again, the British government did not take any initiative to improve this situation as they were more interested in the economic growth of their home country.