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Complete story behind the Indo-Pak War 1971

All of us are familiar with this image in which Lt Gen Niazi signing the Instrument of Surrender under the gaze of Lt Gen Aurora. In 1971, Pakistan had received such a wound, the pain of which will always be felt by it. In the same year, Pakistan was bifurcated and India had given it a crushing defeat.


The year 1971 holds great significance in the history of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. In the same year, India had inflicted a wound on Pakistan, the pain of which will always be felt by Pakistan. Talking about Bangladesh, this was the year when Bangladesh emerged as an independent country on the world map. The history-changing war of 1971 began on December 3, 1971. Let us know today the complete story of the two pieces of Pakistan and the coming into existence of Bangladesh...

The Background of War : 

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was fighting for the autonomy of East Pakistan from the beginning. He had announced a six-point program for this. Due to all these things, he had become the glamor of the Pakistani government. Along with this, some other Bengali leaders were also on the target of Pakistan. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and other Bengali leaders were tried for separatist agitation for their suppression and to suppress the voice of rebellion forever.

But this move of Pakistan itself overshadowed it. This made Mujibur Rahman a hero in the eyes of the people of East Pakistan. This put Pakistan on the back foot and withdrew the conspiracy case against Mujibur Rahman.

1970 Elections in Pakistan :

The 1970 elections in Pakistan proved to be very important for the existence of Bangladesh. In this election, Mujibur Rahman's party East Pakistani Awami League won a landslide victory. Mujib's party got 169 to 167 seats in East Pakistan. In the 313-seat Pakistani parliament, Mujib had an overwhelming majority to form the government. But the leaders and military rule of West Pakistan controlling Pakistan did not accept that Mujib should rule over Pakistan. This deception with Mujib intensified the fire of rebellion in East Pakistan. People took to the streets and started agitating. The ruling establishment of Pakistan called in the army to quell the rebellion in East Pakistan.

Pakistani Army Atrocities :

The freedom movement in East Pakistan was increasing day by day. The Pakistani army resorted to atrocities to suppress the movement. In March 1971, the Pakistani army launched a brutal operation. Large scale atrocities were committed in East Bengal. Murder and rape ensued. Mujeeb was arrested. A large number of Awami League members fled to India to avoid arrest and torture.

Initially four infantry brigades of the Pakistani Army were involved in the operation but later their numbers increased. The refugee crisis in India began to escalate. Within less than a year, about 10 million refugees from Bangladesh fled to India and took refuge in West Bengal. This increased the pressure on India to take action against Pakistan.

India's Intervention :

It is believed that at the end of March 1971, the Government of India decided to help the Mukti Vahini. Muktivahini was actually the army of East Pakistan which liberated Bangladesh from Pakistan. The Mukti Vahini included soldiers and thousands of civilians from East Pakistan. On March 31, 1971, Indira Gandhi, while giving a speech in the Indian Parliament, spoke of helping the people of East Bengal. On July 29, 1971, a public announcement was made in the Indian Parliament to help the boys of East Bengal. The Indian Army started preparations from its side. This preparation also included training the fighters of the Mukti Vahini. 

In the months of October-November, 1971, the then Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi and her advisors visited Europe and America. He put the vision of Bharat in front of the leaders of the world. But the talks between Indira Gandhi and the then US President Richard Nixon did not reach any conclusion. Nixon refused to do anything for the release of Mujibur Rahman. Nixon wanted the military government of West Pakistan to be given two years. On the other hand Indira Gandhi said that the situation in Pakistan is explosive. This situation cannot be correct unless Mujeeb is released and talks are started with the elected leaders of East Pakistan. He also told Nixon that if Pakistan continued provocations across the border (in India), India would not hesitate to retaliate.

Attack on India and Start of the war :

The East Pakistan crisis reached an explosive point of view. There were large marches in West Pakistan and calls for military action against India. On the other hand Indian soldiers were guarding the border of East Pakistan. On November 23, 1971, President of Pakistan Yahya Khan asked Pakistanis to be ready for war. On December 3, 1971, Pakistan's air force attacked India. Targeted many cities including Amritsar and Agra in India. With this the Indo-Pak war of 1971 started. The war ended on 16 December 1971 with the surrender of the Pakistan Army and the birth of Bangladesh.